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CSC 101: Intro to Computers

CSC 345: Web technologies

CSC 350: Special Problems I

Are you new to computers? Do you wonder what they do and why you would want to use one? Welcome—you're in the right place. This article gives an overview of computers: what they are, the different types, and what you can do with them.

What are computers?

Computers are machines that perform tasks or calculations according to a set of instructions, or programs. The first fully electronic computers, introduced in the 1940s, were huge machines that required teams of people to operate. Compared to those early machines, today's computers are amazing. Not only are they thousands of times faster, they can fit on your desk, in your lap, or even in your pocket.

Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software. Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that you can see and touch, including the case and everything inside it. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular chip inside your computer called the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor. It's the "brain" of your computer—the part that translates instructions and performs calculations. Hardware items such as your monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other items are often called hardware devices, or devices.

Software refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do. A word processing program that you can use to write letters on your computer is a type of software. The operating system (OS) is software that manages your computer and the devices connected to it. Two well-known operating systems are Windows and Macintosh operating system. Your computer uses the Windows operating system.


Introduced in 1946, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first general-purpose electronic computer. It was built for the United States military to calculate the paths of artillery shells. Physically, ENIAC was enormous, weighing more than 27,000 kilograms (60,000 pounds) and filling a large room. To process data, ENIAC used about 18,000 vacuum tubes, each the size of a small light bulb. The tubes burned out easily and had to be constantly replaced.

Types of computers

Computers range in size and capability. At one end of the scale are supercomputers, very large computers with thousands of linked microprocessors that perform extremely complex calculations. At the other end are tiny computers embedded in cars, TVs, stereo systems, calculators, and appliances. These computers are built to perform a limited number of tasks.

The personal computer, or PC, is designed to be used by one person at a time. This section describes the various kinds of personal computers: desktops, laptops, handheld computers, and Tablet PCs.

Desktop computers

Desktop computers are designed for use at a desk or table. They are typically larger and more powerful than other types of personal computers. Desktop computers are made up of separate components. The main component, called the system unit, is usually a rectangular case that sits on or underneath a desk. Other components, such as the monitor, mouse, and keyboard, connect to the system unit.

Picture of a desktop computerDesktop computer

Laptop computers

Laptop computers are lightweight mobile PCs with a thin screen. They are often called notebook computers because of their small size. Laptops can operate on batteries, so you can take them anywhere. Unlike desktops, laptops combine the CPU, screen, and keyboard in a single case. The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use.

Picture of a laptop computerLaptop computer

Handheld computers

Handheld computers, also called personal digital assistants (PDAs), are battery-powered computers small enough to carry almost anywhere. Although not as powerful as desktops or laptops, handhelds are useful for scheduling appointments, storing addresses and phone numbers, and playing games. Some have more advanced capabilities, such as making telephone calls or accessing the Internet. Instead of keyboards, handhelds have touch screens that you use with your finger or a stylus (a pen-shaped pointing tool).

Picture of a handheld computerHandheld computer

Tablet PCs

Tablet PCs are mobile PCs that combine features of laptops and handhelds. Like laptops, they're powerful and have a built-in screen. Like handhelds, they allow you to write notes or draw pictures on the screen, usually with a tablet pen instead of a stylus. They can also convert your handwriting into typed text. Some Tablet PCs are “convertibles” with a screen that swivels and unfolds to reveal a keyboard underneath.

Picture of a Tablet PCTablet PC

What can you do with computers?

In the workplace, many people use computers to keep records, analyze data, do research, and manage projects. At home, you can use computers to find information, store pictures and music, track finances, play games, and communicate with others—and those are just a few of the possibilities.

You can also use your computer to connect to the Internet, a network that links computers around the world. Internet access is available for a monthly fee in most urban areas, and increasingly, in less populated areas. With Internet access, you can communicate with people all over the world and find a vast amount of information.

Here are some of the most popular things to do with computers:

The web

The World Wide Web (usually called the Web, or web) is a gigantic storehouse of information. The web is the most popular part of the Internet, partly because it displays most information in a visually appealing format. Headlines, text, and pictures can be combined on a single webpage—much like a page in a magazine—along with sounds and animation. A website is a collection of interconnected webpages. The web contains millions of websites and billions of webpages.

Picture of the Microsoft Game Studios webpageExample of a webpage (Microsoft Game Studios)

Surfing the web means exploring it. You can find information on the web about almost any topic imaginable. For example, you can read news stories and movie reviews, check airline schedules, see street maps, get the weather forecast for your city, or research a health condition. Most companies, government agencies, museums, and libraries have websites with information about their products, services, or collections. Reference sources, such as dictionaries and encyclopedias, are also widely available.

The web is also a shopper's delight. You can browse and purchase products—books, music, toys, clothing, electronics, and much more—at the websites of major retailers. You can also buy and sell used items through websites that use auction-style bidding.

For information about how to explore the Internet and the web, see Exploring the Internet.


E‑mail (short for electronic mail) is a convenient way to communicate with others. When you send an e‑mail message, it arrives almost instantly in the recipient's e‑mail inbox. You can send e‑mail to many people simultaneously, and you can save, print, and forward e‑mail to others. You can send almost any type of file in an e‑mail message, including documents, pictures, and music files. And with e‑mail, you don't need a stamp! See Getting started with e‑mail.

Instant messaging

Instant messaging is like having a real-time conversation with another person or a group of people. When you type and send an instant message, the message is immediately visible to all participants. Unlike e‑mail, all participants have to be online (connected to the Internet) and in front of their computers at the same time. Communicating by means of instant messaging is called chatting.

Pictures, music, and movies

If you have a digital camera, you can move your pictures from the camera to your computer. Then you can print them, create slide shows, or share them with others by e‑mail or by posting them on a website. (To learn more about what you can do with photos, see Working with digital pictures .) You can also listen to music on your computer, either by importing (transferring to your computer) music from audio CDs or by purchasing songs from a music website. Or, tune in to one of the thousands of radio stations that broadcast over the Internet. If your computer comes with a DVD player, you can watch movies.


Do you like to play games? Thousands of computer games in every conceivable category are available to entertain you. Get behind the wheel of a race car, battle frightening creatures in a dungeon, or control civilizations and empires! Many games allow you to compete with other players around the world through the Internet. Windows includes a variety of card games, puzzle games, and strategy games (see Learn about games in Windows Vista).

From: http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-vista/Introduction-to-computers


There is a Continuing Studies Web course for every aspect of web publishing and for every level of learner:

Web Publisher Certificate

Requires no previous experience. Starting with the basics this certificate teaches everything you need to design, code, and prepare graphics for attractive, effective, and standards compliant websites. Upon completion of all the required courses you will have the following skills:

  • Publish websites to remote servers
  • Code HTML and CSS to modern standards
  • Design attractive and usable websites
  • Prepare graphics for the web

Web Developer – Open Source Certificate

This advanced certificate builds on the Web Publisher courses to go to the next level of website development. Automate your pages with Javascript. Use PHP programming to connect to back-end databases for dynamic content - such as product descriptions and online catalogues. Essential knowledge for any professional web developer. (Note: the Database Developer Certificate, which teaches server side databases, is a great complement to Web Developer – Open Source). Upon completion of all the required courses you will have the following skills:

  • Create dynamic web pages using PHP to connect to server-side databases
  • Easily link to server-side database content using Adobe Dreamweaver
  • Use Javascript for such tasks as browser detection, roll-overs, and page automation
  • Use correctly structured XML files for data exchange
  • Create interactive sites with ActionScript 3

Web Marketing Certificate

For any manager or developer faced with a web project, this certificate will teach the skills necessary for proper planning and implementation. It also covers essential marketing skills including: identifying a target audience and ensuring your site is usable for that audience and easy for them to find. Finally, using web analytics you can verify the effectiveness of your web presence in measurable and objective ways. Upon completion of all the required courses you will have the following skills:

  • Effectively plan and implement a web based project
  • Identify a target audience for your web presence and develop an appropriate strategy for them
  • Effectively market your web presence
  • Optimize your website for good search engine results
  • Use analytics to measure your website’s performance in detail

Web Publisher: FastTrack

Is a series of accelerated one-day courses suitable for those with some experience who want to upgrade their skills. It is a perfect tune-up if you want to work faster and more effectively. Modern coding practises are emphasized for usability, standards compliance, and easy and consistent formatting with CSS. Due to the accelerated nature of FastTrack courses, it is recommended that participants begin this series with some prior knowledge and experience.

NOTE: In any of the above areas feel free to take individual courses as your needs dictate, or – if you complete all the requirements – apply for graduation and receive a Continuing Studies Certificate.

With advice from academia and the industry we continuously evolve our Web courses to include new technologies and to meet the needs of web designers, publishers, and managers in today's market. Recently we have added courses on such important topics as usability testing, marketing, and search engine optimization – look for the “New” symbol.

From: http://www.langara.bc.ca/continuing-studies/programs-and-courses/programs/web-technologies/index.html

How can you, the multimedia designer, get to know the capabilities of Flash without actually learning every technique? This article provides a non-technical overview of Flash so that newcomers can "get the big picture."



Flash is a powerful software program that can greatly enhance a variety of multimedia formats. It can be used to create animated movies that are small in file size, load quickly, and incorporate user interaction and sound. For example, you could use Flash to add interactivity to a web- or CD-Rom based training module. Or you might include a Flash cartoon on a commercial web site to add visual appeal.

At first glance, Flash may appear to be a relatively simple program. It has few tools compared to, say, Adobe PhotoShop®. And ActionScript, the scripting tool that was made available with Flash4, is simpler than most scripting languages, such as Lingo for Macromedia Director®. But as one learns more about Flash, a world of complex authoring structures, advanced techniques, and sophisticated effects begins to unfold.

So how can a Flash beginner grasp and begin to use the power of Flash without actually learning every technique? This article will provide you with a non-technical overview that will give you "the big picture." You can then direct your learning based on your own design needs and a fundamental understanding of Flash's capabilities.

In the pages that follow, you'll have a chance to learn about those aspects of Flash that are listed below. As the proud author, I certainly hope you'll savor every word in the order it was written. But knowing that you're probably a busy person, I'll let you click on the following items to go exactly where you like:

Ready to dive in? We'll begin by having a look at how Flash is typically conveyed to the end user.

From: http://www.dartfrogmedia.com/overview/index.htm